Nephrology and Urology

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The kidneys are located in the abdomen toward the back, normally one of each side of the spine. They get their blood supply through the renal arteries directly from the aorta and send blood back to the heart via the renal veins to the vena cava. (The term "renal" is derived from the Latin name for kidney.)

The kidneys have the ability to monitor the amount of body fluid, the concentrations of electrolytes like sodium and potassium, and the acid-base balance of the body. They filter waste products of body metabolism, like urea from protein metabolism and uric acid from DNA breakdown. Two waste products in the blood can be measured: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr).

When blood flows to the kidney, sensors within the kidney decide how much water to excrete as urine, along with what concentration of electrolytes. For example, if a person is dehydrated from exercise or from an illness, the kidneys will hold onto as much water as possible and the urine becomes very concentrated. When adequate water is present in the body, the urine is much more dilute, and the urine becomes clear. This system is controlled by renin, a hormone produced in the kidney that is part of the fluid and blood pressure regulation systems of the body.


An accurate and speedy diagnosis is critical to developing an effective treatment plan for patients with life-threatening nephrologic conditions. Pediatric Nephrology Services at Cedars-Sinai offers comprehensive testing and evaluation of the kidneys to definitively diagnosis any problems, as well as to determine the cause. Pediatric Nephrology Services also provides prenatal evaluation and counseling for families whose unborn children are identified with kidney disease.

Available Testing Includes:

  • Biopsy
  • Blood tests
  • CT imaging of the urinary system
  • MR imaging of the urinary system
  • Nuclear renal scan
  • Ultrasound
  • Urine analysis

The Nephrology department at We Care India partner hospital specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney disorders such as : -

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